Sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity among community-dwelling and institutionalized female older woman in Caxias do Sul, Brazil

Main Article Content

Maria Lucia Casagrande
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9261-3143
Rafaela Santi Dell'Osbel
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4643-0973
Joana Zanotti
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6523-2449
Maria Celeste Osório Wender
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9085-4605

Abstract

Introduction: Sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity are considered risk factors for the health of the elderly, which may cause or worsen the reduction in functional capacity. Objective: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity among community-dwelling and institutionalized female elderly in Caxias do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Observational epidemiological study, with cross-sectional design. 423 elderly women (≥60 years old) institutionalized and community-dwellers, participated in the study. Sarcopenia was identified according to the criteria established by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). The gait speed test estimated low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) by bioimpedance, low handgrip strength using a hand dynamometer, and low physical performance. Obesity was defined as Body Mass Index ≥27.0kg/m² and sarcopenic obesity by the simultaneous occurrence of obesity and sarcopenia. The Chi-Square test was performed, with a 5% significance level. Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 53.9%. Sarcopenia was observed in 16.3% of the total sample, affecting 7.5% of the elderly in the community and 25.1% in institutions (p≤0.0001). Regarding sarcopenic obesity, 0.9% of the community and 3.8% of institutionalized elderly presented the dysfunction. Non-sarcopenic elderly women had a high prevalence of obesity. In the elderly of both groups, sarcopenia was more frequent in those with advanced age. Conclusion: Institutionalized elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenia, emphasizing the importance of paying attention to the health of this population and highlighting the need for preventive measures.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Casagrande, M. L., Dell’Osbel, R. S., Zanotti, J., & Wender, M. C. O. (2022). Sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity among community-dwelling and institutionalized female older woman in Caxias do Sul, Brazil. ABCS Health Sciences, 47, e022215. https://doi.org/10.7322/abcshs.2020046.1495
Section
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Maria Lucia Casagrande, Curso de Nutrição, Centro Universitário da Serra Gaúcha (FSG) – Caxias do Sul (RS), Brazil

Graduate Student in Nutrition Course, FSG Centro Universitário (FSG) – Caxias do Sul (RS), Brazil.

Rafaela Santi Dell'Osbel, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Ginecologia e Obstetrícia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil

Master Student in the Health Sciences Postgraduation Program: Gynecology and Obstetrics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.

Joana Zanotti, Curso de Nutrição, Centro Universitário da Serra Gaúcha (FSG) – Caxias do Sul (RS), Brazil /Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Ginecologia e Obstetrícia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil

Doctoral Student in the Health Sciences Postgraduation Program: Gynecology and Obstetrics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Professor in the Nutrition Course, FSG Centro Universitário (FSG) – Caxias do Sul (RS), Brazil;

Maria Celeste Osório Wender, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Ginecologia e Obstetrícia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil

Doctor in Medicine: Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Professor in the Postgraduation Program: Gynecology and Obstetrics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.

References

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Brasil: projeção da população 2018. Available from: https://agenciadenoticias.ibge.gov.br/

World Health Organization (WHO). World report on aging and health. Geneva: WHO, 2015.

Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Bahat G, Bauer J, Boirie Y, Bruyère O, Cederholm T, et al. Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age Ageing. 2019;48(1):16-31. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afy169

World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity and overweight. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight

Villareal DT, Apovian CM, Kushner RF, Klein S. Obesity in older adults: technical review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO, the Obesity Society. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(5):923-34. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/82.5.923

Batsis JA, Villareal DT. Sarcopenic obesity in older adults: etiology, epidemiology and treatment strategies. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2018;14(9):513-37. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41574-018-0062-9

Antunes AC, Araujo DA, Verissimo MT, Amaral TF. Sarcopenia and hospitalization costs in older adults: a cross‐sectional study. Nutr Dietetics. 2017;74(1):46-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/1747-0080.12287

Araujo MYC, Norberto MCCS, Mantovani AM, Turi-Lynch BC, Santos LL, Ricardo SJ, et al. Obesity increases costs with productivity loss due to disability retirements, independent of physical activity: a cohort study. J Occup Environ Med. 2020;62(5):325-30. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001808

Woo J, Leung J. Sarcopenic obesity revisited: insights from the Mr and Ms os cohort. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018;19(8):679-84.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2018.03.003

Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Baumgartner RN, Ross R. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis. J Appl Physiol. 2000;89(2):465-71. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.2.465

Batsis JA, Mackenzie TA, Barre LK, Lopez-Jimenez F, Bartels SJ. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and mortality in older adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68(9):1001-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2014.117

Lauretani F, Russo CR, Bandinelli S, Bartali B, Cavazzini C, Di Iorio A, et al. Age-associated changes in skeletal muscles and their effect on mobility: an operational diagnosis of sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95(5):1851-60. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00246.2003

Barbosa-Silva TG, Bielemann RM, Gonzalez MC, Menezes AM. Prevalence of sarcopenia among community-dwelling elderly of a medium-sized South American city: results of the COMO VAI? study. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016;7(2):136-43. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12049

Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing. 2010;39(4):412-23. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afq034

Kurose S, Nishikawa S, Nagaoka T, Kusaka M, Kawamura J, Nishioka Y, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults visiting regional medical institutions from the Kadoma Sarcopenia Study. Sci Rep. 2020;10:19129. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76185-0

Lipschitz DA. Screening for nutritional status in the elderly. Prim Care. 1994;21(1):55-67.

Yang L, Yao X, Shen J, Sun G, Sun Q, Tian X, et al. Comparison of revised EWGSOP criteria and four other diagnostic criteria of sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling elderly residents. Exp Gerontol. 2020;130:110798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2019.110798

Chang CS, Chang YF, Liu PY, Wu SJ, Chiu CJ, Chen YC, et al. Interaction of Central Obesity and Sarcopenia on Nutritional Status in the Community-Dwelling Older People. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2019;87:104003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2019.104003

Diz JBM, Leopoldino AAO, Moreira BS, Henschke N, Dias RC, Pereira LSM, et al. Prevalence of sarcopenia in older Brazilians: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017;17(1):5-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12720

Alexandre TS, Duarte YAO, Santos JLF, Wong R, Lebrão ML. Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia among elderly in Brazil: findings from the SABE study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(3):284-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-013-0413-0

Tagliapietra BL, Vaz TL, Schuch NJ, Margutti KMM. Preditores para diagnóstico de sarcopenia, estado nutricional e atividade física de idosas institucionalizadas e não institucionalizadas. Disciplinarum Sci. 2016;17(1):53-62.

Lima LM, Souza RJS, Cunha MRH, Leopoldo AS, Leopoldo APL. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em idosas do Centro de Convivência para a Terceira Idade de Vitória/ES. Rev Bras Cienc Saude. 2017;21(2):119-26. https://doi.org/10.4034/RBCS.2017.21.02.03

Bahat G, Kilic C, Topcu Y, Aydin K, Karan MA. Fat percentage cutoff values to define obesity and prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older adults in Turkey. Aging Male. 2018;1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/13685538.2018.1530208

Teixeira VBD, Machado CJ, Faria MG, Gonçalves RV. Transição nutricional no Estado de Minas Gerais em 1974 e 2009: um estudo com enfoque na população idosa. Rev Bras Edu Cult. 2018;(17):1-24.

Bedogni G, Pietrobelli A, Heymsfield SB, Borghi A, Manzieri AM, Morini P, et al. Is body mass index a measure of adiposity in elderly women? Obes Res. 2001;9(1):17-20. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2001.3

Zong G, Zhang Z, Yang Q, Wu H, Hu FB, Sun Q. Total and regional adiposity measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and mortality in NHANES 1999-2006. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(11):2414-21. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21659

Benton MJ, Whyte MD, Dval BW. Sarcopenic obesity: strategies for management. Am J Nurs. 2011;111(12):38-46. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NAJ.0000408184.21770.98

Oliveira TM, Roriz AKC, Barreto-Medeiros JM, Ferreira AJF, Ramos L. Sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older women, determined by different diagnostic methods. Nutr Hosp. 2019;36(6):1267-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.02593

Carmienke S, Freitag MH, Pischon T, Schlattmann P, Fankhaenel T, Goebel H, et al. General and abdominal obesity parameters and their combination in relation to mortality: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67(6):573-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.61

Crisostomo LAHK. Prevalência e incidência de obesidade sarcopênica em coorte de idosos domiciliados no município de São Paulo [dissertation]. [São Paulo]: Universidade de São Paulo; 2016.

Oliveira Neta RS, Souza IFS, Câmara SMA, Souza MC. Sarcopenia, nutritional status, and functionality in elderly women living in the community. Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol. 2018;21(3):342-51. https://doi.org/10.1590/1981-22562018021.170181

Ianiski VB, Schwanke CHA. Obesidade sarcopênica e fatores de risco cardiometabólico em idosos da comunidade [dissertation]. [Porto Alegre]: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; 2020.

Machado KLLL. Fatores de risco para baixa massa muscular em coorte prospectiva de idosas brasileiras residentes na comunidade: São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) [dissertation]. [São Paulo]: Universidade de São Paulo; 2019.

Matsushita T, Nishioka S, Taguchi S, Yamanouchi A. Sarcopenia as a predictor of activities of daily living capability in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2019;19(11):1124-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13780

Zhang N, Zhu WL, Liu XH, Chen W, Zhu ML, Kang L, et al. Prevalence and prognostic implications of sarcopenia in older patients with coronary heart disease. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2019;16(10):756-63. https://doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2019.10.002

Cunha BS, Souza CRG, Prudente LOB, Osório NB, Silva Neto LS. Sarcopenia em idosas quilombolas: análise das variáveis antropométricas e de força de preensão manual. Rev Pat Tocantins. 2017;4(3):9-15. https://doi.org/10.20873/uft.2446-6492.2017v4n3p9

Lee J. Associations between handgrip strength and disease-specific mortality including cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases in older adults: a meta-analysis. J Aging Phys Act. 2019;5(1):1-12. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2018-0348

Gadelha AB, Dutra MT, Oliveira RJ, Safons MP, Lima RM. Associação entre força, sarcopenia e obesidade sarcopénica com o desempenho funcional de idosas. Motri. 2014;10(3):31-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.6063/motricidade.10(3).2775

Amigues I, Schott AM, Amine M, Gelas-Dore B, Veerabudun K, Paillaud E, et al. Low skeletal muscle mass and risk of functional decline in elderly community-dwelling women: the prospective EPIDOS study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013;14(5):352-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2012.12.002

Dufour AB, Hannan MT, Murabito JM, Kiel DP, McLean RR. Sarcopenia definitions considering body size and fat mass are associated with mobility limitations: the Framingham Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68(2):168-74. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/gls109