What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about therapeutic tinnitus interventions?

Main Article Content

Osmar Clayton Person
Fernando Veiga Angélico Junior
Jacqueline Altoé
Leonardo Marinho Portes
Paula Ribeiro Lopes
Maria Eduarda dos Santos Puga


Introduction: Tinnitus is a sound perception not related to stimulation. It can significantly impair the quality of life and its treatment is considered one significant challenge of Medicine. Objective: To evaluate systematic reviews developed by Cochrane regarding therapeutic interventions for subjective tinnitus. Methods: It is an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews. We searched systematic reviews on Cochrane Library. The MeSH term "tinnitus" was used for searches. Inclusion criteria involved therapeutic interventions for patients with subjective tinnitus. Results: The search strategy recovered 577 citations with 14  Cochrane systematic reviews. 13 were included because they were focusing on primary tinnitus interventions. One review had no scope of analysis for tinnitus and it was excluded. 7,998 tinnitus patients were evaluated. Conclusion: There is a lack of evidence of the effectiveness of any intervention for tinnitus treatment, considering the studies performed so far and compiled in Cochrane systematic reviews.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Person, O. C., Angélico Junior, F. V., Altoé, J., Portes, L. M., Lopes, P. R., & Puga, M. E. dos S. (2022). What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about therapeutic tinnitus interventions?. ABCS Health Sciences, 47, e022301. https://doi.org/10.7322/abcshs.2020111.1565
Review Articles


Jastreboff PJ, Hazell JWP. Tinnitus Retraining Therapy. Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Person OC, Nardi JC, Féres MCLC. Zinc supplement modifies auditory brainstem responses in patients with tinnitus. J Int Adv Otology. 2010;6(2):173‐82.

Roberts LE, Eggermont JJ, Caspary DM, Shore SE, Melcher JR, Kaltenbach JA. Ringing ears: the neuroscience of tinnitus. J Neurosci. 2010;30(45):14972‐9. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4028-10.2010

Jastreboff PJ, Brennan JF, Coleman JK, Sasaki CT. Phantom auditory sensation in rats: an animal model for tinnitus. Behav Neurosci. 1988;102(6):811‐22. https://doi.org/10.1037//0735-7044.102.6.811

McCormack A, Edmondson‐Jones M, Somerset S, Hall DA. A systematic review of the reporting of tinnitus prevalence and severity. Hear Res. 2016;337:70‐9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2016.05.009

Mondelli MFCG, Rocha AB. Correlação entre os achados audiológicos e incômodo com zumbido. Arq Int Otorrinolaringol 2011;15(2):172-80. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1809-48722011000200009

Oiticica J, Bittar RSM. Tinnitus prevalence in the city of São Paulo. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;81(2):167-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjorl.2014.12.004

Gallus S, Lugo A, Garavello W, Bosetti C, Santoro E, Colombo P, et al. Prevalence and determinants of tinnitus in the Italian adult population. Neuroepidemiology. 2015;45(1):12‐9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000431376

Hall DA, Lainez MJ, Newman CW, Sanchez TG, Egler M, Tennigkeit F, et al. Treatment options for subjective tinnitus: self reports from a sample of general practitioners and ENT physicians within Europe and the USA. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-11-302

Hall DA, Fackrell K, Li AB, Thavayogan R, Smith S, Kennedy V, et al. A narrative synthesis of research evidence for tinnitus‐related complaints as reported by patients and their significant others. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2018;16(1):61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-018-0888-9

Bauer CA. Tinnitus. N Engl Med. 2018;378:1224-31. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcp1506631

Sanchez TG, Ferrari GMS. O controle do zumbido por meio da prótese auditiva: sugestões para otimização do uso. Pró Fono. 2002;14(1):111‐8.

Baguley D, McFerran D, Hall D. Tinnitus. Lancet. 2013;382(9904):1600‐7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60142-7

Henry JA, Dennis KC, Schechter MA. General review of tinnitus: prevalence, mechanisms, effects, and management. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2005;48(5):1204‐35. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2005/084)

Guitton MJ, Caston J, Ruel J, Johnson RM, Pujol R, Puel JL. Salicylate induces tinnitus through activation of cochlear NMDA receptors. J Neurosci. 2003;23(9):3944‐52. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-09-03944.2003

Sahley TL, Nodar RH. A biochemical model of peripheral tinnitus. Hear Res. 2001;152(1-2):43‐54. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-5955(00)00235-5

Hall DA, Wegner I, Smit AL, McFerran D, Stegeman I. Betahistine for tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;2018(8):CD013093. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013093

Sereda M, Xia J, El Refaie A, Hall DA, Hoare DJ. Sound therapy (using amplification devices and/or sound generators) for tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;12(12):CD013094. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013094.pub2

Person OC, Puga ME, Silva EM, Torloni MR. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;11(11):CD009832. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009832.pub2

Hoare DJ, Edmondson-Jones M, Sereda M, Akeroyd MA, Hall D. Amplification with hearing aids for patients with tinnitus and co-existing hearing loss. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(1):CD010151. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010151.pub2

Hilton MP, Zimmermann EF, Hunt WT. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(3):CD003852. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003852.pub3

Baldo P, Doree C, Molin P, McFerran D, Cecco S. Antidepressants for patients with tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;2012(9):CD003853. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003853.pub3

Bennett MH, Kertesz T, Perleth M, Yeung P, Lehm JP. Hyperbaric oxygen for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;10:CD004739. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004739.pub4

Hobson J, Chisholm E, El Refaie A. Sound therapy (masking) in the management of tinnitus in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;11:CD006371. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006371.pub3

Hoekstra CE, Rynja SP, van Zanten GA, Rovers MM. Anticonvulsants for tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;2011(7):CD007960. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007960.pub2

Meng Z, Liu S, Zheng Y, Phillips JS. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(10):CD007946. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007946.pub2

Martinez-Devesa P, Perera R, Theodoulou M, Waddell A. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(9):CD005233. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005233.pub3

Phillips JS, McFerran D. Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) for tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(13):CD007330. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007330.pub2

Fuller T, Cima R, Langguth B, Mazurek B, Vlaeyen JWS, Hoare DJ. Cognitive behavioural therapy for tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;1(1):CD012614. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012614.pub2

Person OC, Féres MCLC, Barcelos CEM, Mendonça RR, Marone MR, Rapoport PB. Zumbido: aspectos etiológicos, fisiopatológicos e descrição de um protocolo de investigação. Arq Med ABC. 2005;30(2):111-8.

Jastreboff PJ. Phantom auditory perception (tinnitus): mechanisms of generation and perception. Neurosci Res. 1990;8(4):221-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-0102(90)90031-9