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Introduction: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized as a condition of chronic and generalized muscle pain, resulting primarily in decreased functional capacity and emotional changes of the patient. Physical exercise (PE) can promote different effects in FMS depending on the chosen method: aerobic training (AT) alone, resistance training (RT) alone or the combination of both in concurrent training (CT). Objective: To synthesize data from clinical trials on the effects of resistance training and aerobic training in people with FMS. Methods: Searches were performed in the Pubmed, Scielo, Virtual Health Library, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Articles published between 2009 and 2020 were analyzed. Results: Eighteen randomized clinical trials were included to compose the discussion of this review. Altogether 1,136 individuals with FMS who participated in interventions with PE were analyzed; 10 studies used RT as an intervention method; 8 applied AT and 3 used CT. In 3 studies more than one method was used. Studies pointed out that there were significant improvements in biological and psychophysiological aspects at the end of the interventions. Conclusion: The analyzed articles suggested that PE through both RT and AT, alone or combined, is an alternative treatment for the population with FMS, being a low-cost intervention and providing significant improvements for these patients.
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