Prevalence and associated factors to the cosmetic doping among fitness-centers customers

Jhonatan Lima-Oliveira, Paulo Adriano Schwingel

Abstract


Introduction: The rise in the cult of the body in modern society has led many fitness-centers customers to the systematic practice of intramuscular oil injections, procedure called cosmetic doping. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of cosmetic doping in the São Francisco Valley region, in order to establish the sociodemographic and clinical profiles of this group of individuals. Case report: This is a retrospective documentary study with analysis of 346 records from fitness-centers customers, of which 7 reported use of cosmetic doping. Sociodemographic, kinanthropometric, hemodynamic, personal and family past medical history and the consumption of licit and illicit drug data were collected from these records. The prevalence of cosmetic doping was 2.0% (95%CI 0.8–4.1), and most of the users are young adults with high school graduates, middle-class workers, and are considered physically active with low body fat mass. They use concomitantly dietary supplements, anabolic steroids and other illicit drug. Conclusions: The findings of the study contribute in determining the profile of this population, demonstrating that users of cosmetic doping are young adults concerned with aesthetic body. The sociodemographic characteristics found in this study differ from previous studies in the level of education, income and occupation. In this sense, actions to raise awareness of this population about the risks and dangers of the cosmetic doping
should be supported as soon as possible.


Keywords


doping in sports; injections, intramuscular; mineral oil; plant oils; risk factors

References


Sagoe D, Molde H, Andreassen CS, Torsheim T, Pallesen, S. The global epidemiology of anabolic-androgenic steroid use: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Ann Epidemiol. 2014;24(5):383-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.01.009

Abrahin OSC, Sousa EC, Santos AM. Prevalence of the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in Brazil: a systematic review. Subst Use Misuse. 2014;49(9):1156-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2014.903750

Azevedo AP, Ferreira AC, Da Silva PP, Caminha IO, Freitas CM. Dismorfia muscular: a busca pelo corpo hiper musculoso. Motri. 2012;8(1):53-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.6063/motricidade.8(1)240.

Figueiredo VC, Silva PRP, Trindade RS, Rose EH. Doping cosmético: a problemática das aplicações intramusculares de óleos. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2011;17(1):56-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922011000100011

Darsow U, Bruckbauer H, Worret WI, Hofmann H, Ring J. Subcutaneous oleomas induced by self-injection of sesame seed oil for muscle augmentation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(2 pt1):292-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(00)90144-0

Iversen L, Lemcke A, Bitsch M, Karlsmark T. Compression bandage as treatment for ulcers induced by intramuscular self-injection of paraffin oil. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89(2):196-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-0583

Figueiredo VC, Silva PR. Cosmetic doping-when anabolicandrogenic steroids are not enough. Subst Use Misuse. 2014;49(9):1163-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2014.916522

Marfell-Jones M, Olds T, Stewart A, Carter L. International standards for anthropometric assessment. 2ed. Potchefstroom: International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry; 2006.

Lukaski HC. Requirements for clinical use of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Ann NY Acad Sci. 1999;873:72-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb09451.x

Pardini R, Matsudo S, Araújo T, Matsudo V, Andrade E, Braggion G, et al. Validação do questionário internacional de atividade física (iPAQ - versão 6): estudo piloto em adultos jovens brasileiros. Rev Bras Cienc Mov. 2001;9(3):45-51.

Iriart JAB, Chaves JC, Orleans RG. Culto ao corpo e uso de anabolizantes entre praticantes de musculação. Cad Saúde Pública. 2009;25(4):773-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2009000400008

Iriart JAB, Andrade TM. Musculação, uso de esteróides anabolizantes e percepção de risco entre jovens fisiculturistas de um bairro popular de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Cad Saúde Pública. 2002;18(5):1379-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2002000500031

Schwingel PA, Cotrim HP. Consumo de recursos ergogênicos entre praticantes de musculação de academia não registrada. Lec Educ Fis Dep. 2012;17(173):e111.

Azevedo MPA, Ferreira ACD, Ferreira UMG. Óleos de aplicação local intramuscular: epidemiologia do uso em praticantes de musculação. Rev Bras Cienc Mov. 2009;17(3):45-53.

Ip EJ, Barnett MJ, Tenerowicz MJ, Perry PJ. The Anabolic 500 survey: characteristics of male users versus nonusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids for strength training. Pharmacotherapy. 2011;31(8):757-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1592/phco.31.8.757




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7322/abcshs.v40i1.704

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Jhonatan Lima-Oliveira, Paulo Adriano Schwingel

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.